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Silvipasture under MGNREGS in Odisha
Purpose & Priority of the project :
To provide fodder to cattle of tribal household strategies adopted for bringing about the transformation & positive impact.
Tribal cattle farmers of Kuchinda sub-division sustain their livelihood through producing milk & selling to OMFED through Milk Producer Cooperative Society (MPCS). They spend huge money in purchasing fodder for the cattle. As a case, their net income lessen & profit squeeze.
So, it has been decided to cultivate fodder through taking up Silvipasture activities under MGNREGS in 24 Ha. with an estimated cost of Rs.63.63 lakhs.
MPCS members were been involved actively & now the farmers have not to rely on fodder from the market. The cost in fodder head came down & the farmers got fodder from the silvipasture unit.
This projects transformed barren land (Gochar land) into grazing land. In this way, the tribal farmers got a permanent source of fodder without any worry for high fodder cost.

Role of various stakeholders – most importantly role & details involvement of :
In this project, the primary stakeholders and tribal cattle farmers, Milk Producers Cooperative Society (MPCS), veterinary department, MGNREGS functionaries of Gram Panchayat, Block & District.

Tribal Cattle Farmers :
The cattle farmers worked as daily wage labourer in the silvipasture project activities like land leveling, ploughing, fencing, seeding, planting etc. works are done by the farmers.

Milk Producers’ Cooperative Society (MPCS) :
Different rounds of meeting held with MPCS members & they have understood about the benefits of the silvipasture projects. Ownership of the projects have been given to the MPCS. Works like maintenance & management responsibility was entrusted to the MPCS. Equitable distribution of the produced fodder was the primary role of the MPCS.

Veterinary Functionaries :
Veterinary staffs identified the land for the project. Meetings, workshops were arranged with the cattle tankers & MPCS members. Technical inputs were given by the officials.

MGNREGS Functionaries :
Execution of the project was done by MGNREGS functionaries at Gram Panchayat level. Monitoring & supervision was done by Block/Dist. Level functionaries.

Highlight/positive features of the initiative
(a) Transparency & stakeholder participation :
The implementation of the project done with full involvement of the tribal cattle farmers beneficiaries. Project Initiation Meeting (PIM) were conducted with the beneficiaries & all the payment made through online.
(b) Innovativeness of the initiative & replicability :
This project is one of first of its kind in the district. Such a large scale of fodder cultivation has never been done earlier through Govt. project.
(i) Fodder cost borne by the farmers come down due to the innovative way of cultivation.
(ii) Grazing land could be preserved & expanded through the project.
(iii) Cattle farming turned into a lucrative occupation for the tribal household. It can be replicated to all the land reserved under Gochar.
(c) Increased efficiency & effectiveness of outcome :
Through this innovative initiative, members of MPCS made accountable for fodder supply & distribution. The farmers haven’t to rely on fodder supplied by different shop. It helped to become self-sufficiency.

(d) Display of leadership/Team work by the nominee :
The whole project is implemented under the direct supervision & guidance of the4 nominee. The project implemented with the support of different stakeholder in a convergence mode.

(e) Sustainability of the initiative :
This project will not be abandoned after completion of the project. An agreement will be signed between veterinary department officials (BVO) & MPCS President for taking the ownership of the project & responsible for maintaining the project.
A local level committee has also been formed to bring accountability & judicious use of the produced fodder.

Outcome i.e. impact/benefits resulting from the initiative :
- Improvement in delivery time of services
- Better beneficiaries feedback
- Improvement in measurable indicators
- Simplified producers

The fodder was available at the locality of the farmers. The farmers have not to come to nearer town for fodder purchase. In this way, it helped to save time of the farmers.

Better beneficiaries feedback :
The beneficiaries are happy to produce green fodder & it helped to reduce their cost of fodder dramatically. The farmers could save money from fodder expenses & the same amount utilized for other purpose.

Improvement in measurable indicators:
There is a rise in savings & man days through this project.
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Innovation in Good Governance
Innovation in Good Governance

In order to bring uniformity in the design, colour and content of the cover pages of the case records and 7 registers, two special customised cover pages of case records one for community project and other for individual projects have been developed. Similarly, customised cover pages of the 7 register have also been developed.

The State government has also issued specific guidelines to the field functionaries in follow the customised designed cover pages of 7 registers, case records and Job cards besides Citizen Information Board, scrupulously.
Extensive wall writing both text and pictorial are being taken at the village and GP level on various aspects of MGNREGS like permissible work and entitlements of the workers are being carried out.

A special monitoring team has also been placed at the State Level to monitor the various parameters of Good Governance in the State.
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Convergence under MGNREGS proves silverline
Birakishore Naik livesin the Asanabani village,Ghatagaon Block of Keonjhar district which is 24 KM away from kendujhar district. He owns 1.1 acres of farm land. This in 2011 gave him a rice harvest of only 5 quintals. Last year, he harvested 12 quintals.
“I am very thankful to the rain water management system, which have changed my economic condition as well as my land development! My soil quality has improved and it developed its fertility potential and I am very happy to see 230% rise in productivity. In November 2017, I got 12 quintal paddy in anacre of land where I used to get only 5 quintals till 2014. Beyond the paddy, I am even growing good quality mustard, Tomato, Brinjal which fetches me higher income nowadays.”

Birakishore Naik, a tribal farmer, in Asanabani Village of Keonjhar, Odisha, has seen a significant rise in productivity after the construction of the water harvesting system — an effective use of MGNREGA by Government of Odisha.

Through a simple rain water management structure under MGNREGA increased the production dramatically during 2013. This is an elevated region. Elevated regions are cultivated by poor farmers, at the same time the low areas where the rainfall collects, is used by the richer farmers. But simple engineering has changed this dynamic to a more balanced equation towards development.
Earlier, the village was severely affected by frequent flash floods during the rains. The speedy water run-off damaged agricultural fields and the fertility of the soil, which is the most crucial thing for agricultural production, was often washed away. However, with the concept of rain water management — the technique of controlling, conserving and effectively utilising total precipitation — the whole village has become drought free and the water table has risen to enable the harvest of bumper “Rabi” crops (winter crops like wheat, mustard and mung) since 2014. Almost the entire village, 117 farmer has seen a doubling of the produce from their farms, and even the nearby forests which were drying up have gone green.

Water bodies that could earlier hold rainwater for only 30 minutes, can now keep it for 10 hours due to the erection of diversion bunds — allowing the infiltration of water into the soil such that The underground pore spaces store water for future use, conserving at least 750 mm of rainfall — a whopping 50–60% of the total rainfall.With the erection of diversion bunds for better water management, the rainwater can be held for 10 hours as against 30 minutes — allowing water infiltration into the field for better crop production
Effective implementation of MGNREGA enhanced the livelihood of Mr Birakishore by providing additional food grains for last 4 years from Paddy horse gram, mustard and vegetables by converting fallow land to fertile land. He sold Paddy of Rs 7500-9000 every year for last 3 years and the money is being invested in child education and household expenditure. He also worked 183 days in MGNREGA in last four years which gave him additional income of 34,568/- as wage. He got one rural house under FRA and could able to complete with the additional amount he got from MGNREGA. This is one of the success story of Birakishore out of 117 farmers who got benefit from the MGNREGA
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Land Development under MGNREGS proves silver line in hillly terrain
Erasantaguda is a a tiny hamlet of Maliput GP, which is situated under the top of a small hill in Potting Tehsil in Koraput District of Odisha State. It is located 52 KM towards South from District head quarters Koraput. 418 KM from State capital Bhubaneswar. Just a decade earlier , the village is surrounded with dense forest and the villagers used to live in the forest and basically depend upon Ragi (MANDIA) , Millet (BAJARA) etc. cultivation. Till few year earlier, they had no idea of vegetable and its cultivation as the village was surrounded with steep hills. Financially and educationally too they were very poor. Under this back ground the MGNREGS came as boon for them.
Intervention
The scheme MGNREGS was implemented in the year 2006 and the category of Land Development work was implemented in the year 2016 throughout the village. That time the beneficiary involvement was missing as works on individual lands are decided elsewhere and dumped on gullible poor. Works are isolated as officials pursue their whims or act as directed. Works detailing is based on experience of rural development officials or their intuition, rather than technical knowledge. Single intervention or investment is deemed to qualify an “asset” and isolated infrastructure creation has not impacted increased productivity.

Approach to land development in MGNREGS assumes that a large latent resource is waiting to be tapped with one or two steps for being productive. This narrow approach offers little to lands with poor endowments and thus has little to offer to SC/ST farmers.

The community land development project was made in the hilly area as tracing approach. The estimate cost of the project is 5.00 lakhs. Around 60 beneficiaries are covered in this project. At least 12 hectares of land have been developed for the villagers by cutting the slope of the hill. Irrigation facilities have also been made by diverting the stream flowing through hill by a diversion made with soil and stone. Now, the with the land development, the villagers are able to cultivate different vegetables like cauliflowers, beans, banana, jinger, dal, etc in the barren small hill.
Marketing Linkage for the Vegetable.
To create marketing facilities for the villagers to sell their vegetables, The district administration has constructed a Kunduli vegetable market under Regulated Market Committee and linked it with the National Agriculture market through www.enam.gov.in . The market is just 2-3 kilometers away from the villagers. The c ivil construction work of include development of vegetable market at Kunduli
Including electrification and water supply under RKVY and State plan with a total expenditure of 761 lakhs. Now the villagers are selling their vegetable in the Kunduli regulated market at Good price. The vegetables produced by the villagers are now export to Raipur , Berhampur and Andhara Pradesh.

Impact
Effective implementation of MGNREGA enhanced the livelihood of Mr Bira Kishore Khara by providing additional food grains and vegetable for last 2 years from Paddy, papaya , mustard and vegetables by converting fallow land to fertile land. He sold Paddy of Rs 7500-9000 every year for last 2 years and the money is being invested in child education and household expenditure. He also worked in the MGNREGA during the land development work. This is one of the success story of Birakishore out of 117 farmers who got benefit from the MGNREGA. Giving a gratitude , Birakishore said “We the villagers are extremely thank full to the Government due to the MGNREGA , our life has saw a 360 degree improvement”. “Not only the land development, we got the road constructed under MGNREGS which helped us to market the vegetable”, he further added with a smile in his face.
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Mango Plantation in Kandhamal
Sri Rama Chandra Pradhan, aged about 40 yrs., resides in a small village “Budiapanga” which is at a distance of 2 KM. from Raikia Block headquarter in Dadingia GP of Raikia block under Kandhamal District. Two decades earlier, he was a poor farmer cultivating turmeric & vegetables over a small patch of land which could not provide him sustainable income. He was earning about Rs. 40,000/- per annum. The interventions of Horticulture Department started during the year 2016- 17. During the year 2016-17 he took up 2.00 ha. Mango plantation (High Density) under MGNREGS scheme. Obtaining assistance from MIDH (NHM) schemes. He also started intercropping with vegetables and turmeric. The main source of irrigation was a perennial Nalla flowing by the side of orchard and he was drawing water through a small diesel pump set. It was also integrated with Mulching and Drip Irrigation system and he was encouraged to take up more inter crops efficiently. He was provided with a Low Energy Cool Chamber under MIDH (NHM) for storing of perishables. products.





During the year 2016-17 he took up 2.00 ha. Mango plantation (High Density) under MGNREGS scheme. He also adopted Farm Mechanization by a purchasing a Tractor with Rotavetor and other accessories. During this year he took up Black pepper cultivation over an area of 2.00 ha. and planted Yam around the periphery of his orchard. Now he is continuously inter-cropping the orchard with Tissue Culture Banana, Potato, Onion, ground nut, Hybrid vegetables etc. provided under NHM, State Plan&RKVY schemes. After the interventions by Horticulture Department his income has substantially increased over the years and his present annual net income is above 3.00 lakh. Thus the life style of the tribal farmer has been completely transformed from poverty to prosperity and he has become an example for all the farmers of the District.
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Cashew Plantation under the scheme MGNREGS in Nabarangpur
In Bagniguda village, Chatahandi G.P. in Nabarangpur Block, Cashew Plantation was taken up during the year 2015-16 over 20.00 Ha area covering 32 nos. of beneficiary i.e., SC_05 Nos. ,ST-16 Nos. and OBC-11 Nos. respectively. Earlier to this the land remained fallow due to severe degradable condition of the topography situated in the foot hills and the beneficiaries were not able to take up any crop. For this the beneficiary of the villagers demanded to the PD, Watersheds during the year 2015 along with application for taking up cashew plantation. This area over 20.00 Ha.(50.00 Acre) was selected through Grama Sabha to take up Cashew Plantations. The estimated cost for 1st Year operational cost is Rs.5,30,000 during the year 2015-16, 2nd year operational cost is Rs.1,78,000/- during the year 2016-17 and 3rd year operational cost is Rs.2,00,000/- during the year 2017-18, in totalRs.9,08,000/- for 3 years. The total no of plant population is 3500 Nos. over an area of 20.00 Ha. of plantation. For one Hectare of cashew plantation the investment cost is Rs.45,400/-and each beneficiary is entitled to get over 2 Acre area of cashew plantation having 140 Nos. of plants. The life span of cashew plantation is 35 years. After 5 years of plantation the economic yield starts paying dividend to the beneficiary without any investment over a gestation period is 30 years. Each beneficiary having 2 Acre of cashew plantation will get an average annual income of Rs.84,000/-. The detailed cost benefit of cashew plantation is given below:


COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CASHEW PLANTATION TAKEN UP UNDER MGNREGS OVER 20.00 HA.(50 ACRE) UNDER PD, WATERSHEDS, NABARANGPUR.
1.One Hectare of cashew Plantation consist of 175 no. of plants.
2. Estimated cost for raising One Ha. Cashew Plantation (for 3 Years)=Rs.45,300.00 (1st Yr. =Rs.26500/, 2nd Yr.=Rs.8900/- & 3rd Yr.=Rs.9900/-)
3. Total Area covered is 20 Ha. (50 Acre) with an estimated cost of Rs.9,08,00/-
4.Total No. of Beneficiary covered is 32 nos. (Each beneficiary will get -2 Acre plantation)
5. In one Acre- 70 nos. plants. Therefore for 2 Acre-140 nos. Plants.
6. Economic Yeild of cashew nut starts from 5th Yr. of Plantation upto 30 Years.
7. Average Yeild per Plant= 5 Kg. Therefore in 2 Acre=170 nos. of plants= 5 Kgx140 nos. = 700 Kg.
8. Selling Price of cashew nut is Rs.120/- per Kg. Therefore 700 Kg x Rs.120 = Rs.84000/ 2 Ac./ Beneficiary/ Annum.
9. Total Lifespan of cashew Plantation is over 35 Years.
10. One beneficiary per 2 acre for 30 Yrs will get Rs.84000/ annum x 25 Yrs.= Rs.21,00,000/-
11. Total Input cost per One Acre is Rs.18120/- Therefore for 2 Acre= Rs.36240/-
For 50 Acre= Rs.9,08,000/-
12. Total benefit per beneficiary over 2 Acre for one Year = Rs. 84,000/- - Rs.36240/-= Rs. 47,760/-
13. Total benefit per beneficiary over 2 Acre for 25 Years = Rs. 21,00,000/- Rs.36240/-= Rs. 20,63,760/-
14. Each beneficiary will get a monthly income of Rs.5733/- for 25 Years & will get 5 month engagement in the plantation.
Therefore over 32 Nos. of Household will get a sustainable additional income over and above of their daily wages for a period of 25 years. Hence Cashew plantation is one of the most remunerative profitable livelihoods for the asset less and poor farmers having their ownership in the degraded land holdings.
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MGNREGS-NRLM convergence
Detail Description
The MGNREGS-NRLM convergence strategy is being implemented in 3 blocks (Bansapal, Telkoi and Harichandanpur) of Keonjhar district on pilot basis since July 2015. The Blocks have been identified by the District administration because of its larger concentration of vulnerable groups especially the PVTGs, availability of natural resources etc. The MGNREGS-NRLM (National Rural Livelihood Mission) convergence strategy has been developed by Panchayti Raj Department, Odisha to assist the vulnerable households to graduate from their current unviable and risky livelihoods to more viable and sustainable livelihoods and thus come out of poverty through collective and converged efforts of MGNREGS and NRLM. It aims at promoting self- reliance and improving the livelihoods base of the MGNREGS workers so that they can move from the current partial employment to full employment status and thereby gradually reduce their dependency on Mahatma Gandhi NREGS.

Strategies Adopted
During the IPPE-II efforts were made to include projects for creation of durable assets and securing livelihood of rural households. For each village or cluster of villages, a nodal officer from the government has been entrusted with the responsibility of taking up the issues and concerns of the village.
At the beginning, a quick assessment was done by district team to observe institutional arrangement under NRLM, coverage of NRLM, key livelihoods sectors and sub sectors, potential products, trade route of products, availability of natural resources, extent of dependency of local communities on the resources etc. Based on the assessment some livelihoods models and interventions have been designed. Capacity of variety of institutions like Women SHGs, Village Development Committee, Joint Forest Management Committee, Primary Agricultural Cooperatives, Youth Clubs etc. were build up through training, handholding and systematic guidance.
Measures have been taken to ensure at least one community projects in each village to provide round the year employment under MGNREGA. Massive land development has been undertaken and made cultivable. Farm ponds have been undertaken in a massive scale in the piloting area to address water scarcity problems. Minor irrigation Department was instructed to go forward with their works in convergence with MGNREGA. Plantation work in the catchment areas has been taken up and the dying springs and stream has been rejuvenated by adopting traditional watershed approach.
Under NRLM, market linkages for raw and value added products were given top priority. Marketing of arrowroot and tamarind, linkage has been established with Foster Brothers, Bhubaneswar, an organic trading unit which deals with all types of NTFP and exporting of organic products. Market Promotion Board was set up which will also help in regulating the pricing arrangement of selected products, facilitate with the state owned agencies like TDCC,ORMAS etc to procure, add value and market the produce collected by the primary producers.
On priority basis, youths from registered households under MGNREGA who have worked for at least fifteen days in the previous year have been identified for skill training under the DDU-GKY skilling initiative. The objective of this initiative strives to enhance the annual income of the targeted households beyond 100 days by providing training and employment to the unemployed youths. Creation of 30 model entrepreneurs (10 in each block) is underway and 30% of identified beneficiaries have been taken for skilling under DDU-GKY.

Impact
In Keonjhar, a total of 63,11,527 persondays have been generated during 2015-16 of which the contribution of the three pilot blocks is 28 %. The average persondays in Bansapal Block is
much ahead with 51 person days per household in Bansapal block whereas it is 46 person days per household in Keonjhar district. The women participation in Bansapal Block is 44 % which is much ahead of the district average. Besides, more numbers of works have been taken up in the convergence blocks that helped in enhancing the performance of the scheme in the Blocks.
During 2015-16, as many as 21526 households were benefitted under various livelihood activities which were taken through MGNREGS- NRLM convergence.
Initial estimation shows each household earned an additional income of 8,000 to 10,000 within 6 months depending upon the types of livelihood activities like vegetable cultivation, watermelon cultivation and NTFP etc.
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Combat distress migration through MGNREGS
Detail Description:

Western Odisha has long been a major area for migration because of its highly unequal land distribution and high levels of poverty among landless and marginal farmers. A combination of erratic monsoons and unstable livelihoods has made farmers of the region adopt migration as a survival strategy. Due to absence of any effective sources of livelihood, this hefty advance money comes as a big allurement (pull factor) and a coping for the people to repay their old debt and get into the cycle of another debt which push the people into bondage and agony merely for survival.

Strategies Adopted

To address the issue, State Government has initiated a project in 11 blocks of Balangir and Nuapada districts where issue of distress migration is rampant. A Detailed Project Report (DPR) was developed by for 3 years which has been operational since July 2013. In these 11 blocks, as per State Government decision, 150 days of employment per year are provided to households prone to distress migration. Budgetary allocation has been made to meet the cost towards additional 50 days of employment. An advance employment guarantee card has been issued to all interested migrant households. The crux of the project has been creation of assured employment and timely payment through focused interventions in MGNREGS. The project has been designed in such a way that most of the families prone to distress migration would be engaged during the lean period for at least 20 days in each month under MGNREGS. Now, the project has extended to 20 blocks covering 4 districts of western Odisha.

Impact

In Nuapada and Balangir districts, about 15000 migrant households have been provided employment during 2015-16. It was noticed that household engagement has increased from 0.91 lakh to 1.38 lakh households from 2012-13 to 2015-16 respectively. Average person days increased from 42 person days per household in 2012-13 to 51 person days per household in 2015-16. Person days generated increased by 31.07 lakhs i.e. from 38.63 lakh person days in 2012-13 to 69.70 lakh person days in 2015-16.
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Dress Changing Room & Renovation of Pond in Sheragada Block
Detail Description:
The State Government has given thrust on construction of bathing ghat and dress changing room while renovating/constructing tank under Mahatma Gandhi NREGS to protect the modesty and dignity of women in rural areas. Taking a step forward in this regard, the Government has also framed a guideline on construction of bathing ghat and dress changing room in renovation/construction of tank under the Mahatma Gandhi NREGS
Like many other parts of the State, the people in Kandha Nuagada of Dhanantara GP under Shergarh Block in Ganjam District largely depend on the community ponds for their bathing and washing clothes. Earlier, the people were facing lot of problem in changing their clothes in open areas in the ponds as there were no such facilities. After Odisha Govt. framed the guidelines, rennovation of Tank, construction of bathing and dress changing room were taken up under MGNREGS in the financial year of 2015-16 at Kandha Nuagada of Dhanantara GP. Each work of pond was completed in 2015-16 . Now the storage capacity of the tank has increased substantially which is helpful for community use. 4 nos of bathing ghat and 2 nos of dress changing rooms were constructed around the pond.
Impact
The pond has provided irrigation facilities to nearby land for paddy and vegetable cultivation. Now, the pond is providing water to 15 acre and paddy cultivation and to 30 acres of land for paddy cultivation. The bathing ghat and the cloth changing room has fulfilled a basic critical need of the villagers, women in particular. Similarly, as many as 4 dress changing rooms were constructed in Sagarpalli Tank at Takarada GP and 2 dress changing rooms in Patra bandha in Sulusula village in Dhabalpur GP of Shergarh Block under Ganjam District during 2015-16. “Earlier we were facing a lot of problem in changing our dress after bath in pond. Government has taken good steps to construct the dress changing room adjacent to pond. Now we are happy.“said Malati Patra, a villager.
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Priority on Water Conservation and Water Harvesting to address the drought situation
Detail Description:

Due to drought situation in the State, conservation of rain water through renovation of existing water bodies, creation of new water harvesting structures, irrigation channels and irrigation facilities on lands of vulnerable communities were prioritized. This encouirgae the communities to participate under MGNREGS. During 2015-16, the State has created 4382 traditional water bodies, 5073 water conservation and water harvesting structures, 1363 check dams, 5322 farm ponds and 652 multipurpose farm ponds.

Strategies Adopted
One big tanl was planned to be taken up in each Gram Panchayat to facilitate irrigation and other purposes in the stress period. A large number of water conservation and water harvesting structures like check dam, WHS, diversion weir, renovation of water bodies, farm pond, multipurpose farm ponds were being taken up under Mahatma Gandhi NREGS on priority.
The field officials were instructed to take up works in saturation mode in “Ridge to Valley” approach

Financial Achievement:
During 2015-16, an amount of 303 crores has been spent towards water conservation and water harvesting. The districts like Puri, Mayurbhanj, Balasore, Dhenkanal, and Deogarh have done exceptionally well in completion of projects against taken up.
Impact
Irrigation facilities to the lands of many of the vulnerable section households have been provided. As results, their economic condition has been uplifted. This also helped in arresting the distress migration as the migration labourers have been able to take to cultivation which was earlier not possible due to lack of irrigation facilities.
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